Scientific Tree invites all the Clinical Research & Biomarkers across the nations to submit their Abstracts before the deadline ends. Kindly submit your abstract. There are altogether 16 sessions on Clinical Research & Biomarkers . Choose your calling and please submit your abstract relevant to the conference or session
The study of biomarkers has evolved rapidly in the advance of personalized medicine and individual health. The identification and validation of biomarkers in drug discovery and development and in disease diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention play an essential role in the genome era. Biomarker Research provides fast dissemination of novel findings in the light of new knowledge. The use of biomarkers in basic and clinical research has become so common place and is now accepted almost without question. Specific biomarkers have well been characterized and repeatedly shown to correctly predict relevant clinical outcomes across a variety of treatments and populations. This session discusses about the advanced technologies in clinical research and biomarkers.
A cancer biomarker or oncology biomarker is nothing but a substance or a process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A cancer biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Cancer biomarkers are useful in establishing specific diagnosis. Cancer biomarkers determine whether tumors are of primary or metastatic origin. To make this distinction researchers can screen the chromosomal alterations found on cells located in the primary tumor site against those found in the secondary site. If the alterations match, the secondary tumor can be identified as metastatic; whereas if the alterations differ, the secondary tumor can be identified as a distinct primary tumor. Biomarkers of cancers of prostate, breast, ovary, and lung in human serum have been reviewed, as well as those of heart disease, arthritis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis. This session further discusses the advanced developments in cancer biomarkers.
Molecular Biomarkers or imaging biomarkers such as CT, PET, MRI can be used to refer to non-imaging biomarkers that have biophysical properties, which allow their measurements in biological samples such as plasma, serum, cerebrospinal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage, biopsy and include nucleic acids-based biomarkers such as gene mutations or polymorphisms and quantitative gene expression analysis, peptides, proteins, lipids metabolites and other small molecules. Molecular biomarkers have been defined as biomarkers that can be discovered using basic and acceptable platforms such as genomics and proteomics. Many genomic and proteomics techniques are available for biomarker discovery and few of them are also in use. Apart from genomics and proteomics platforms biomarker assay techniques, metabolomics, lipidomics, glycomics, and secretomics are the most commonly used as techniques in identification of biomarkers. This session discusses about the latest discovery and development of molecular biomarkers.
Current genomics and biotechnology promise the development of biomarkers to predict individual disease risk, and enable early detection of disease. The progress has been slow in personalized risk prediction and in early detection. Genome-wide association studies are more likely to provide leads for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases and useful information on personalized risk assessment. The development of biomarkers are sufficiently sensitive and specific for early detection of diseases which are life-threatening is very challenging and the validation of such biomarkers requires very large randomized screening trials. The development of biomarkers for personalizing treatment selection particularly in oncology has seen greater progress. This session discusses the key bottlenecks that limit the progress of discoveries in genomics to biomarkers and treatments that reduce mortality and morbidity from chronic diseases.
Various types of Biomarkers have been used by epidemiologists, physicians, and scientists of the world to study diseases in human. For instance, the application of biomarkers in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular disease, infections, immunological and genetic disorders, and cancer are well known. This session discusses the various technologies available to further improvise mass spectrometry imaging. Biomarkers can also reflect the entire spectrum of disease from the earliest manifestations to the terminal stages. This session discusses further the advance technologies and the latest developments in application of biomarkers in diseases diagnostics.
Biomarker development is conceptualized as occurring in five consecutive phases. There are two major types of biomarkers. Biomarkers of exposure are used in risk prediction and biomarkers of disease are used in screening, diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression. They offer distinct and obvious advantages. The classification of many neurological diseases are based on either standardized clinical criteria or histological diagnoses. Biomarkers have the potential to identify neurological disease at an early stage and provide a method for homogeneous classification of a disease. This session further discusses about the developments of biomarkers.
Cancer research is done in academia, research institutes, and corporate environments and is largely funded by governments. And cancer research ranges from epidemiology, molecular bioscience, and clinical trials to evaluate, and compare various applications of the treatments. Clinical cancer research shifted towards therapies derived from biotechnology research, such as cancer immunotherapy and gene therapy. In cancer research medicine biomarkers are used in three primary ways known as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive. Diagnose conditions identify early stage cancers; whereas prognostic conditions forecasts aggressive condition and determines patient's ability to fare in the absence of treatment; and predictive condition predicts how well a patient will respond to treatment which is called predictive.
The application of biomarkers in clinical research is to expedite the drug development process to produce drug therapies and maintaining the safety profile at the same time. Biomarkers have been used for decades, from monitoring blood pressure to lipid levels. Biomarkers can be influential in every phase of drug development, from drug discovery and preclinical evaluations, through each phase of clinical trials and into post-marketing studies. Technologies identify and measure biomarkers as diverse and numerous. From traditional in vitro analyses of gene patterns, gene expression, protein expression, and metabolite quantification, to the in vivo measurement of biological processes to correlate the biomarker to clinical data is the goal of these technologies. This session discusses further development in the role of biomarkers in clinical research and development.
With the recent technological advancements biomarkers have played a significant role in drug discovery. But still there is a scarcity of robust and valid biomarkers to accelerate the drug development process from pre-clinical through all stages of clinical studies. The introduction of protein and gene arrays, high performance instrumentation such as high-field nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectrometers; and decisions on safety and efficacy criteria can be made with a higher degree of confidence. This session discusses the current definitions, biomarker categories, challenges in biological and analytical validation, along with several clinical examples. This session also discusses about the latest developments in biomarkers and drug discovery.
Biomarker discovery verification, and validation requires high confidence identification of biomarker candidates with simultaneous quantitative information to indicate which proteins are changing to a statistically relevant degree in response to a given environmental change, drug treatment, or disease. Biomarker candidates identified in discovery need to be validated using larger sample sets covering a broad cross section of patients or populations. A verification step can screen potential biomarkers to ensure that only the highest quality leads from the discovery phase are considered into the costly validation stage. A verification stage requires a high throughput workflow that provides high specificity, sensitivity, requiring minimal sample preparation for identification purposes. This session discusses advance developments in biomarker discovery, verification and validation.
Clinical trials are experiments done in clinical research. Such prospective biomedical research studies on human participants are designed to answer specific questions about biomedical or behavioral interventions. Clinical trials aim to ensure the scientific validity and reproducibility of the results. Clinical trials also include new treatments like vaccines, drugs, dietary choices, dietary supplements etc. Clinical trials can vary in size and cost depending on the product type and development stage. These may involve a single research center or multiple centers based in one country or in multiple countries. Clinical trials are conducted only after they have received approval from the health authorities or ethics committee of their respective countries. This session discusses latest trends and developments in clinical trials.
There are several advances in biomarker testing. They have been identified for clinical diagnosis of cancers. Some of these are also drug-based targets against which small molecule inhibitors are under development. The perfect biomarker set should be characterized by a high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. The early diagnosis and monitoring of clear-cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC), a common renal malignancy remains challenging. Advances in Molecular biomarkers have been shown to aid the diagnosis and disease monitoring for other cancers. Plasma and serum circulating nucleic acids, nucleic acids present in urine, and plasma and urine proteins gained interest in the field of cancer biomarker discovery. This session further discusses more in detail about the advances made in biomarker testing.
Companion diagnostics are co-developed with drugs to aid in selecting or excluding patient groups for treatment with that particular drug on the basis of their biological characteristics that determine responders and non-responders to the therapy. These companion diagnostics are developed based on companion biomarkers that prospectively help predict likely response or severe toxicity. These companion diagnostics identify patients who are likely to benefit from a particular therapeutic product. And it identifies the increased risk for serious side effects with respect to the treatment with a particular therapeutic product and its safety issues. This session discusses the latest trends and techniques Companion diagnostics.
Translational biomarkers and diagnostics apply to findings in clinical settings to enhance human health and well-being. It should aim to translate the findings in fundamental research into medical practice and meaningful health outcomes. Translational biomarkers and diagnostics can be applied in both preclinical and clinical setting. The criteria for acceptable translational biomarkers and the various approaches to their selection including the latest trends and developments in translational biomarkers and diagnostics will be discussed in this session. In addition methods and requirements for qualification of translational biomarkers will also be reviewed in this session.
Biomarkers and pathology have grown rapidly in the last few years complementarily. Digital pathology and the adoption of image analysis have also grown rapidly in the last few years. This is largely due to the implementation of whole slide scanning, advances in software and computer processing capacity and the increasing importance of tissue-based research for biomarker discovery and stratified medicine. This review sets out the key application areas for biomarkers and pathology including digital pathology and image analysis as they have important roles across the drug and companion diagnostic development pipeline including biobanking, molecular pathology, tissue microarray analysis, molecular profiling of tissue and these important developments are reviewed. This session further discusses in detail about the latest trends and developments in biomarkers and pathology.
Personalized Medicine and Data Analysis tools and technologies in healthcare have the potential to create significant value by improving outcomes while lowering costs for each individual patient. Diagnostic images, genetic test results and biometric information are increasingly generated and stored in electronic health records to enhance the outcomes in personalized medicine and patient care deliveries. This necessitates an urgent need to develop new, scalable and expandable big data infrastructure and analytical methods on scientific premise to enable healthcare providers accessing knowledge for their patients yielding better decisions and outcomes. This session further discusses various modalities, trends and technologies in data analyses for personalized medicine and medical care.